From the GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 31, revised
SPRINGS OF FLORIDA
Wacissa Springs consist of at least 12 known springs scattered along the upper 1.5 mi of the Wacissa River. Land to the east and west of the river is flat and swampy and surface elevations are little more than 3 ft above river level. The area immediately adjoining the river and springs is densely forested with cypress, oak, some pine, and generally moderate undergrowth. To the north, less than a mile from the head of the river, the land becomes hilly, rising in most parts more than 100 ft above the lowland. The river is generally clear and cool -- averaging 21°C. (70°F.). The Wacissa River is in the Aucilla Game Management Area. Aquatic growths have become a problem for anyone navigating the river. According to R. Lazor of the Florida State Bureau of Aquatic Plant Research and Control (oral commun., February 27, 1975), water hyacinth and elodea were introduced to the Wacissa River in the mid-1960's and a herbicide program is being utilized to control their spread. Aquatic plants in the river were identified by J. Krumrich of the Florida State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission (oral commun., February 25, 1975). The surface mats consist of water penny, water hyacinth, yellow water lily, and poison hemlock; the submerged plants are eel grass, Brazilian elodea, southern naiad, and underwater arrowhead. A brief description of the 12 known springs making up the group follows; spring locations are shown on figure 23.
HORSEHEAD SPRING is about 0.4 mi upstream and northwest of the park. Owing to the heavy aquatic growth and fallen trees in the run the spring could not be reached. Streamflow in the run contains an appreciable quantity of tannin.
LOG SPRINGS are about 0.1 mi up Horsehead Run. The springs consist of two vents in a 15- by 40-ft pool. Maximum depths in the limestone are 24 and 28 ft at the entrance to the vents in the southwest and north- east sectors of the pool. Discharge is about 100 ft SW. to Horsehead Run.
THOMAS SPRING is in the river about 300 ft WNW. of the boat ramp at the park. According to Ferguson and others (1947) the spring has a vent 8 ft in diameter and is 28 ft below water surface.
SPRING NO. 1 is about 250 ft SW of the diving board, at the west side of the park, in the Wacissa River. Usually the spring flow from the vent, at a depth of about 25 ft, is strong enough to develop a boil at the water surface.
SPRING NO. 2 is about 15 ft S. of shore near the diving board. It dis- charges from a limestone vent at a depth of about 19 ft.
ALLEN SPRING is about a mile above the confluence of the Wacissa and Little Rivers -- in the headwaters of Little River. The spring was not visited owing to the stream-blocking aquatic growth and fallen trees.
CASSIDY SPRING is about 0.5 mi downstream of the park and on the west side of the river. It consists of a spring pool about 80 ft in diameter with an 8-ft vent in limestone near the center. Maximum depth is 28 ft. Discharge is east-southeast to the Wacissa through a run 70 ft wide and 70 ft long.
BLUE SPRING is about 900 ft S. of Cassidy Spring and also on the west side of the Wacissa River. This spring is also known as Little Blue Spring. It has a circular pool about 40 ft in diameter with a small limestone cavity and maximum depth of 14 ft. The spring discharges to the east-southeast through a 40 to 50 ft wide run that is 900 to 1,000 ft long. When visited in January 1975 the run was blocked by fallen trees and aquatic plants.
MINNOW SPRING is on the east side of the Wacissa River about 500 ft below Cassidy Spring. Access is through a 50 to 60 ft wide run and about 150 ft long. The spring pool is about 95 ft long (northwest- southeast) and 75 ft wide with its 15-ft vent at the north end. The spring vent has a maximum depth of about 8 ft.
BUZZARD LOG SPRINGS is opposite Blue Spring on the east side of theriver. There are two vents in the run where it joins the Wacissa; water discharges from about an 8-ft depth. One of the vents is reportedly limestone and the other sand. The run leads about 1,000 ft E. of a pool about 80 ft long and 50 ft wide that also has two vents. Entrance to the east pool is blocked by fallen trees and aquatic plants.
GARNER SPRINGS is separated by a run 50 ft wide and 150 ft long. The run enters the Wacissa River from the east about 1 mi below the park. The western pool is about 650 ft E. of the river and its maximum depth is about 6 ft. The eastern pool is reported to be the larger and some 8 ft deep but is blocked by fallen trees and aquatic growth.
BIG SPRING is a few hundred feet south of Garner Springs, also on the east side of the river. Big Spring is also known as Big Blue Spring. It has a circular spring pool about 120 ft in diameter; its vent is about 70 ft in diameter and 45 ft deep. Pool is 2 to 5 ft deep away from the vent. The limestone is cavernous and the water appears to be entering through several openings near the limestone ledge on the northwest side of the vent. Divers report that the bottom of Big Springs is covered by a layer of silt that is known to have varied from 6 in. thick in the summer of 1974 to 2 ft in the fall of 1975. The spring has two runs. The larger is about 60 ft wide and flows some 1,200 ft NW. and W. to the Wacissa River; the other run is 30 to 40 ft wide and it flows southwest about 1,000 ft to the Wacissa.